Daguerreotype collectibles: during the first 25 years of the 19th
century, many people worked on the challenge of writing in light.
They prepared papers and plates with light-sensitive chemicals with
limited success. Although both a French artist and English amateur
inventor (William Fox Talbot) devised and publicized different methods
at the same time, it was the French artist, Louis Jacques Daguerre,
whose invention became more popular.
Obsession with the Daguerreotype lasted twenty years, with improvements made to the lens, apparatus, and chemistry. The process was speeded up, especially important when making commercial portraits, resulting in a new industry. Although it was expensive, the creation of a miniature portrait of a loved one became the substitute for more expensive portrait painting. For less than $5, anyone could be captured on silver and framed and fitted to a case, many of the cases richly embossed and gilded. They could be made in studios, galleries, and even by itinerant photographers, with the business as profitable and lucrative as gold-mining. The pictures captured scenes at international events, which were then displayed as newspaper illustrations. Each representation was truthful and realistic, inspiring novels and poetry. Photography became commonplace, showing man, his pets, his property, his ceremonies, and his death.
The problems that developed over time included the heaviness of the polished metal, the delicate surface and the bulky case and frame. Common sizes were 2 3/4 by 3 1/4 inches, with much larger plates being considerably more expensive, and therefore rarer and more collectible. As the process was not subject to patent or license, anyone could create them without subscription costs. The exception was in England where Daguerre secured a patent. Memories of war and scientific competition between the two countries was still fresh in the minds of the two European giants.
The process invented by Englishman, William Fox Talbot produced paper negatives with soft prints, rather than the sharp Daguerreotype images. Although Talbot patented his process in 1841, licenses were hard to sell in face of the free French invention. In spite of this, it was Fox's prints-from-negatives concept that ultimately became the dominant force in photography, but it took more than two decades before advances in the process would contribute to the decline of daguerreotypes. In 1851, multiple prints from glass negatives appeared, followed in 1854, by inexpensive ambrotypes, and two years later, in 1856, the less expensive and much faster to develop tintypes. Soldiers in the American Civil War preferred to carry lighter more durable tintypes of their loved ones. Glass negatives, which documented the war, enabled thousands of copies. The Carte de Visite (CDV), became popular, allowing the reproduction of inexpensive paper portraits. Although the daguerreotype never regained its initial popularity, advocates of the process continue its practise in appreciation of its rich detail and elegance. 15hqqx.
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